The move against the two organisations, named as the Ministry of State Security Bureau 7 and Ministry of People’s Security Correctional Bureau, is part of the first sanctions under Britain’s new global human rights regime.
A North Korean Foreign Ministry spokesman said: “Britain’s latest move is a flagrant political plot to jump on the bandwagon of the United States’ inimical policy.
“We strongly condemn and reject the UK’s daring to impose sanctions on the institutions responsible for our country’s security as violent interference in domestic affairs.”
The sanctions will take the form of asset freezing.
North Korea and the United States have failed to find a compromise over North Korea’s nuclear weapons programme or international sanctions imposed on Pyongyang.
Recent North Korean statements, including one by Kim Yo-jong, the sister of North Korea’s leader Kim Jong-un, have reiterated Pyongyang’s objections to what it sees as hostile and self-serving policies of the United States.
Despite the breakdown in relations, US Secretary of State Mike Pompeo said he was “very hopeful” about resuming talks with North Korea and appeared to leave open the possibility of another summit between the countries’ leaders, despite Pyongyang saying it has no intention of returning to negotiations.
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Winding up three days of talks in Seoul, US Deputy Secretary of State Stephen Biegun earlier rejected speculation he was seeking to meet North Korean officials during his visit, but said the United States was open to talks.
Amid long-stalled US efforts to get North Korea to give up its nuclear weapons, Mr Pompeo said the United States was continuing its efforts to re-establish dialogue with Pyongyang but declined to provide specifics.
He said: “We’re very hopeful that we can continue to have this conversation, whether that’s at levels beneath the summit, or if it’s appropriate and there is a useful activity to take place, to have senior leaders get back together as well.
“As for who and how, timing, I just don’t want to talk about that today.”
US President Donald Trump and Kim met for the first time in 2018 in Singapore, raising hopes for a negotiated end to North Korea’s nuclear program.
But their second summit, in 2019 in Vietnam, and later working-level talks, fell apart.
Mr Trump said on Tuesday he was open to another meeting with Kim and thought it might be helpful.
But North Korea, apparently frustrated that there has been no sign of any easing of punishing sanctions against it, has said in recent weeks it had no intention of sitting down again with the United States.